Sunday, August 7, 2011

Mike Butler: Bloodshed, bad decisions, and brooding discontent in 11 latest settlements

What are the 11 claims worth more than $216.64-million that are about to be passed into law, possibly under urgency in a bundle late at night? They tell a fascinating story of struggle, bloodshed, bad decisions, and brooding discontent. Since these settlements are not going to be subject to scrutiny by parliament, or by the mainstream news media, here is what they are all about.

These groups have signed Deeds of Settlement and are now awaiting settlement legislation for the Deeds to become unconditional: Ngāti Manuhiri, $9-million; Ngāti Makino, $6.7-million; Maraeroa A and B Blocks, $1.8-million; Ngai Tāmanuhiri, $11.07-million; Ngāti Porou, $90-million; Ngāti Pahauwera, $20-million; Ngāti Apa ki te Rā Tō, $27.83-million; Rangitâne o Wairau, $25.374-million; Ngāti Kuia, $24.874-million; Ngāti Manawa, already settled in CNI plus interest on $12.2-million; Ngāti Whare, which was also already provided for in the 2008 Central North Island Settlement.

Since many of these claims result from land sales, some explanation is helpful. Maori customary forms of tenure, in 1840, meant land rights were communal -- numerous whanau and hapu could have overlapping use rights to the same area of land. Individual title was unknown.

Settlers ran into trouble when buying land by doing a deal with one group who had some rights without knowing there was an array of other groups also with rights. The colonial government ran into the same problem between 1840 and 1862 when it mostly held the monopoly right to buy land.

From 1862, Māori land was subject to legislation which established the Native Land Court to determine the owners of Māori land according to Native Custom and to convert customary title into title derived from the Crown. Crown titles also created fixed boundaries on land that was previously shared between groups, with traditional rights extending across an area of land.

Any Māori person could initiate a title investigation through the Native Land Court by submitting an application in writing to the court and paying a fee. The legislation also set aside the government’s monopoly on land purchase enabling individual Māori to use their land as security to develop it, and lease and sell their lands with few restrictions.

An architect of the Waitangi Tribunal process has identified sales and purchases under the native land acts, especially the individualisation of title, and the nature of government purchases from 1840 to 1865 as the second and third most serious grievances. (1). Hence the claims.

Some points become apparent when looking at what happened. The settlement deeds always talk about land loss, when in fact what happened was that land was sold, by willing seller to willing buyer, sometimes to relieve debt, sometimes after strong persuasion.

If you read between the lines a little, the settler economy brought Maori the possibility of individual improvement without being held back by fuddy duddy elders or being weighted down by the obligations of traditional life. The opportunities brought by the new economy meant many left the old life. This is the dispersal and breakdown of tribal structure that the claimants lament.

The biggest per capita settlement goes to northern South Island tribe Ngāti Apa ki te Rā Tō, a total settlement of $27.83-million, which divides to $37,557 for each of the tribe’s 741 members. This settlement is also of interest because the tribe was displaced by North Island tribes in the 1820s and 1830s, and were not in possession of the land that was sold after 1840. This is a historical settlement that goes back to events before 1840, whereas historical claims are limited to the period 1840 to 1992.

What follows is from the Office of Treaty Settlements, although I have added in some historical details that were left out. After you have read a little of the history, you could ask yourself whether you think the circumstances justify the settlements. Your politicians are not going to give this a great deal of thought, so it is over to you, since you are paying for it, that is if you are among the 57 percent of taxpayers who actually pay more tax than receive in benefits.

Ngāti Manuhiri
Location: Their area of interest extends along the eastern coast of North Auckland from Bream Tail in the north to Whangaparoa in the south, and includes Te Hauturu-o-Toi/Little Barrier Island Nature Reserve.

Tribe size: Ngati Manuhiri is not recorded as a separate category, and is affiliated to Ngati Wai, which had a population in 2006 of 4869

Financial redress: $9-million being $2.4984-million cash and $6.5016-million in properties (being the South Mangawhai Forest, the Warkworth District Court, and Pakiri School).

History: Ngāti Manuhiri, who in 1840 held 250,000 acres in the area immediately north of Auckland, did not sign the Treaty of Waitangi but developed cordial relationships with government officials. In 1841, the government bought an extensive area called Mahurangi and Ōmaha, which included lands in which Ngāti Manuhiri held customary interests. Ngāti Manuhiri were not consulted, and the government did not investigate customary rights.

In 1844, the Crown punished a Ngāti Manuhiri chief for his role in a muru (ritualised plunder for compensation) of settlers at Matakana by pressuring him to cede his ancestral interests in land outside the Ngāti Manuhiri area of interest.

The government recognised Ngāti Manuhiri interests by the 1850s and paid compensation and granted reserves later claimed to be inadequate. The government made further purchases, at low prices, from 1853 of land that overlapped with the Mahurangi and Omaha lands.

The balance of Ngāti Manuhiri lands passed through the Native Land Court from 1862 awarding of land title to individuals, facilitating land sales, and eroding tribal structures. Ngāti Manuhiri also lost a number of wähi tapu sacred sites.

From the 1870s, the government wanted to buy Te Hauturu-o-Toi/Little Barrier Island to create a reserve to protect birds. Title determination for the island by the Native Land Court was a long, costly, and fraught process. Some of the owners had substantial debts as a result of the hearings and only wished to sell if those costs were met.

From 1892, the government began negotiations with individual owners of Te Hauturu-o-Toi with offers that did not take into account the standing timber. Some of the owners agreed to sell; others did not. The Little Barrier Island Purchase Act 1894, with compulsory mechanisms similar to public works legislation, made Te Hauturu-o-Toi Crown land. In 1895 the island was made a Nature Reserve. Some of the owners (who were key leaders of Ngāti Manuhiri) refused to accept the compensation paid under the Act and refused to leave the island. They were forcibly evicted in 1896. (2)

Ngāti Manuhiri blame European diseases, the fact that they sold their land, high levels of debt, and a lack of opportunity to compete in the new economy, for subsequent poverty and dispersal, social and cultural dislocation, and a particular prevalence of bipolar disorder and other health problems in their community.

Ngāti Makino
Location: Bay of Plenty, from Maketu to Matata and inland to lakes Rotoiti and Rotoma

Tribe size: About 2000 members, a hapu of Ngati Awa

Financial redress: $6.7-million, being $900,000 cash, and $5.8-million in property (being licensed forest land) plus $3.1-million recognising a delay.

History: Ngāti Mākino did not sign the treaty of Waitangi. Customary law prevailed in the Bay of Plenty until 1863, when the war between the government and the Kingitanga in the Waikato brought tension to the region. The need to choose between support for the Crown, degrees of armed neutrality, and support for the Kingitanga split Ngāti Mākino internally. At Kaokaoroa in 1864, Ngāti Mākino helped fight off a Kingite taua from the east coast. Not long afterwards, Ngāti Mākino battled Crown forces at Te Ranga, near Tauranga.

A new round of conflict began in 1865 when the Crown sought those responsible for the murders of a government official James Te Mautaranui Fulloon (a Maori) sent to investigate the murder of missionary Carl Volkner (a German). The Crown deemed that certain tribes had been in rebellion and confiscated approximately 448,000 acres of land in the Eastern Bay of Plenty under the New Zealand Settlements Act 1863. While the confiscation was not directed specifically at them, all Ngāti Mākino were affected.

The Crown established a compensation court to return land to those who had not been in rebellion. Some Ngāti Mākino were awarded land and others were deemed to be rebels and excluded from ownership. The court returned land in a form inconsistent with customary tenure.

In the 1860s, Ngāti Mākino had no alternative but to use the Native Land Court to secure legal title to their lands, but the Court caused so much unrest amongst Bay of Plenty iwi that the Crown was forced to suspend its operations for several years. By the mid-1880s the govenment had bought most of Ngāti Mākino’s lands, incurring heavy survey costs on the tribe, and prevented Ngāti Mākino from selling land to private parties.

By 1900, the government compulsorily acquired further Ngāti Mākino land for public works and to establish scenic reserves, and private parties bought what little land remained. In the 1920s the Crown introduced schemes to develop fragmented Māori land-holdings, but Ngāti Mākino possessed insufficient land to participate.

From the 1940s many Ngāti Mākino moved to forestry settlements to work. However, the restructure of the Forest Service in the 1980s caused extensive unemployment and dislocation for Ngāti Mākino. (3)

Maraeroa A and B Blocks
Location: Maraeroa A and B blocks were part of the Maraeroa block, a subdivision of the Taupōnuiatia West block, which was part of Te Rohe Pōtae district, located on the main trunk west of Taupo. This settlement is for the descendents of the owners of the blocks who belong to Maniapoto, Tuwharetoa, Rereahu, and Raukawa.

Financial redress: $1.8-million, being $1.578-million cash, and $222,000 worth of commercial redress property.

The grievance: Regarding the sale and purchase of 33,600 acres of land. (4)

Ngai Tāmanuhiri
Location: South of Gisborne. The mouth of the Waipaoa River marks the northern boundary

Tribe size: 1700 in 2006, comprising five hapu

Financial redress: $11.07-million, being $900,000 already paid, plus
$6.6-million cash and a $3.57-million interest in the Wharerata Forest.

History: In May 1840, 22 rangatira from Ngai Tāmanuhiri and other Tūranga (Gisborne area) iwi signed the Treaty of Waitangi, and until 1865 Ngai Tāmanuhiri and their Tūranga (Gisborne area) relatives retained control of their own affairs, remaining neutral when fighting broke out between the government and Māori in other regions before 1865.

In March 1865, emissaries of the new Pai Marire Hauhau religion, from Taranaki, arrived in Tūranga and won numerous converts including some Ngai Tāmanuhiri. The emissaries’ involvement in the murder and beheading of government soldiers in April 1864, and carrying their heads around to gain converts, and the murder of missionary Carl Volkner in Opotiki that month, contributed to tensions between the government and Tūranga Māori. Kereopa Te Rau was the Hauhau emissary who brought Volkner’s head to Poverty Bay to drum up support.

In November 1865 large government military forces came to Tūranga after fighting Pai Marire Hauhau converts on the East Coast. Leading Tūranga chiefs sought to negotiate a peaceful solution but the government threatened Tūranga Māori with attack if they did not take the oath of allegiance. The oath was ignored so government forces attacked Waerenga a Hika pa on November 20, 1865, killing 71 occupants.

In 1866, the government exiled, without charge or trial, approximately 116 Tūranga men, including some Ngai Tāmanuhiri, to the Chatham Islands, as punishment for the rebellion at Waerenga a Hika. Women and children accompanied the men.

In July 1868 Te Kooti led the prisoners, who became known as the Whakarau, in their escape from the Chathams. In November 1868 the Whakarau raided Tūranga, killing 70 people at Matawhero, including about 20 Maori. A large government force, including Maori allies, pursued the Whakarau to Ngatapa where, in January 1869, government forces summarily executed 120 prisoners after capturing this pa. Te Kooti evaded capture for four years before finding refuge in the King Country.

In December 1868 Ngai Tāmanuhiri and their Tūranga whanaunga ceded all their land to the Crown after it threatened to withdraw its protection of the district unless they did so. All Ngai Tāmanuhiri’s customary interests in their lands were extinguished. The Poverty Bay Commission and then the Native Land Court awarded individualised titles to Ngai Tāmanuhiri.

As late as 1983, the Crown continued to acquire Ngai Tāmanuhiri land for public works. The Manutuke Consolidation scheme deprived some Ngai Tāmanuhiri of interests in ancestral land still in Māori ownership. (5)

Ngāti Porou
Location: around the East Cape from Potikirua in the north to Te Toka-a-Taiau in the south, covering an area of about 400,000 hectares.

Tribe size: 72,000 members, comprising 57 hapū and 48 marae

Financial redress: $90-million, being $79.25-million cash and $10.75-million of the licensed land.

A further $20-million given for cultural and historical redress.

History: Ngāti Porou chiefs signed the Treaty of Waitangi in 1840. In 1863 and 1864 some Ngāti Porou fought for the Maori king against the government. In March 1865, emissaries of the new Pai Marire Hauhau religion, from Taranaki, arrived in Tūranga, and won numerous converts. The emissaries’ involvement in the murder and beheading of government soldiers in April 1864, and carrying their heads around to gain converts, and the murder of missionary Carl Volkner in Opotiki that month, contributed to tensions between the government and Tūranga Māori.

Ngāti Porou chiefs sought to arrest the Pai Marire emissaries because they believed they were responsible for the killing of the Rev Carl Volkner (which was kind of obvious since Kereopa brought Volkner’s head). This led to fighting in which the government supported the Ngāti Porou fighting against the Pai Marire Hauhau, who were defeated. At the end of the fighting the government planned to confiscate the land of Ngāti Porou Hauhau.

Ngāti Porou, who were keen to protect their tribal estate, provided fighters for government military operations in other districts between 1865 and 1872. This support, and growing Ngāti Porou opposition, led to the abandonment of plans to confiscate Ngāti Porou land.

In the 1860s the Crown established the Native Land Court which awarded titles on an individualised basis, facilitating land sales. The government considered Ngāti Porou land which was not used for cultivation or habitation to be waste land which should be made available for European settlement, so bought large areas between the 1870s and 1930s.

Government schemes in the 20th century to consolidate Ngāti Porou land interests and develop their land failed to resolve the problem of ongoing fragmentation, did not produce the expect profit, and deprived Ngāti Porou of control of large areas of their land. The government also took control of East Coast rivers such as the Waiapu which Ngāti Porou say is central to their identity. Between 1882 and 1992 the Crown compulsorily took Ngāti Porou land for public purposes on more than more than two thousand occasions.

The Ngāti Porou district has suffered devastating erosion, accelerated since European settlement began, due to deforestation to provide land for farming.

Many Ngāti Porou have served overseas in the New Zealand armed forces, particularly during the Second World War, involved significant sacrifice for Ngāti Porou, especially through loss of leadership. (6)

Ngāti Pahauwera
Location: Northern Hawke’s Bay from Waikare River to Ohinepaka Stream south of Wairoa and inland to Maungaharuru Range.

Tribe size: 6000

Financial redress: $20-million, which involves the transfer of 10 Crown properties as commercial redress and the right to purchase the Mohaka Licensed Crown forest land, as well as the opportunity to buy specific Crown properties and a right of first refusal over Crown properties in their core area of interest when surplus.

History: Ngäti Pähauwera signed the treaty and continued to hold their land and resources under customary tenure. The Crown bought the 87,500 acre Mohaka block in 1851 for a
low price, leaving 100 acres as reserves at Te Heru o Türeia which the government bought a few years later.

In 1864, the government bought the 21,000 acre Waihua block in the lead up to war on the East Coast. The additional 1,152 acres incorrectly included in this
block were never returned or purchased

Following military conflict with Pai Märire Hauhau in the Napier area in 1866 the Crown confiscated all Mäori land between the Waikari and Esk rivers, including lands in which Ngäti Pähauwera held interests, even though some had fought alongside government forces.

While government troops were fighting Te Kooti on the East Coast and Ngati Ruanui leader Titokowaru in Taranaki at the same time, and despite warnings of a possible attack on Ngäti Pähauwera communities at Mohaka, in April 1869, Te Kooti’s fighters killed 56 Ngäti Pähauwera men, women, and children, wounded others who were taken as prisoners, while property, crops and supplies were looted and destroyed. Ngäti Pähauwera blame the government for not helping the tribe recover.

In 1868, Ngäti Pähauwera sought to secure title to much of their land to the north
of the confiscation area through the Native Land Court. Legal irregularities in most of these titles caused significant problems for Ngäti Pähauwera into the early 20th century.
The native land court process led to the sale of further Ngäti Pähauwera landholdings.

In 1907, a Royal Commission concluded that Ngäti Pähauwera needed all their remaining land for their occupation and support. Ngäti Pähauwera did not seem to think so and sold a proportion of the remaining lands to the government and private buyers so that by 1930 approximately 25,000 acres remained in Ngäti Pähauwera ownership.

In 1930, a land development scheme was introduced to improve the viability of Ngäti Pähauwera farms following consolidation of titles. Only selected individuals were able to access any benefit.

Many people left the Mohaka district. Ngäti Pähauwera claim that the lack of land, resources and an economic base have significantly contributed to the economic, social and cultural impoverishment of Ngäti Pähauwera.
(7)

Ngāti Apa ki te Rā Tō
Location: Northern South Island

Tribe size: 741 in 2006 census

Financial redress: $27.83-million, including commercial properties.

History: Ngāti Apa ki te Rā Tō were displaced by northern tribes in the 1820s and 1830s but said they retained tribal structures. NZ Company bought entire northern South Island in 1839. Ngati Apa not consulted. Commissioner approved part of the purchase, again Ngati Apa not consulted, didn’t share in any payment or receive land set aside as tenths (10%). Between 1847 and 1856, the government bought the remaining northern South Island from other tribes. Again, Ngati Apa not consulted and received no money. Received some money from the 1867 West Coast purchase but reserves were insufficient. The Native Land Court concluded in 1883 and 1892 that Ngati Apa had no interest in the Nelson Tenths and Te Tai Tapu cases, but an 1889 hearing granted reserves at Port Gore. A petition by Hoani Mahuika in 1900 resulted in a grant of land for some individuals at Whakapoai on the West Coast, but title was never granted. In 1977, the remaining West Coast reserves wee transferred to the Mawhera Incorporation. Again, Ngati Apa not consulted separately but became shareholders in the incorporation. (8)

Rangitâne o Wairau
Location: Northern South Island.

Tribe size: 1000 in 2006

Financial redress: $25.374-million, including $12.24-million redress in lieu of licensed Crown Forest Land and interest that has been accumulating since the agreement was signed, and includes the value of any Crown land purchased as part of the settlement.

History: Rangitâne o Wairau were also displaced by northern tribes in the 1820s and 1830s but said they retained tribal structures. The New Zealand Company bought the entire northern South Island in 1839. Rangitâne o Wairau were not consulted. Commissioner Spain approved part of the purchase, and again Rangitâne o Wairau were not consulted. In 1847, after the massacre of NZ Company settlers by Ngati Toa at Wairau, the government bought Wairau from North Island Ngati Toa chiefs (Te Rauparaha and Te Rangihaeata). Rangitane were ignored. They were also ignored in the 1853 Te Waipounamu deed. In 1856, Rangitane were paid ₤100 for their interests in the northern South Island and granted reserves in the Wairau district that the tribe later claimed were insufficient. The Native Land Court concluded in 1883 and 1892 that Rangitane had no interest in the Nelson Tenths and Te Tai Tapu cases. The court awarded reserve title to Rangitane individuals in 1889. The government provided some land around 1900 under a reserves arrangement for landless natives, including land on Stewart Island, but did not grant title. The government bought the Pukatea reserve in the 1950s. (9)

Ngāti Kuia
Location: Northern South Island.

Tribe size: 1600 in 2006

Financial redress: $24.874-million, including $12.24-million redress in lieu of licensed Crown Forest Land, and interest since the agreement was signed, and includes the value of any Crown land purchased as part of the settlement, and also includes the value of commercial properties with cultural association.

History: Ngāti Kuia were also displaced by northern tribes in the 1820s and 1830s but said they retained tribal structures. NZ Company bought entire northern South Island in 1839. Ngāti Kuia were not consulted. Commissioner approved part of the purchase, again Ngāti Kuia were not consulted. They were also ignored in the 1853 Te Waipounamu deed. In 1856, Ngāti Kuia were paid ₤100 for their interests in the northern South Island and granted reserves in the Te Hoiere district that the tribe later claimed were insufficient. . The Native Land Court concluded in 1883 and 1892 that Ngāti Kuia had no interest in the Nelson Tenths and Te Tai Tapu cases. The court awarded reserve title to Ngāti Kuia individuals in 1889. The government provided some land around 1900 under the landless natives reserves arrangement, including land on Stewart Island, but did not grant title. Ngāti Kuia also claimed that islands in Pelorus Sound had not been sold and from 1918 were allowed to harvest muttonbirds and other resources from the islands. (10)

Ngāti Manawa
Location: Central North Island iwi based in Murupara

Tribe size: 3500 members

Financial redress: Ngāti Manawa’s commercial and financial interests in that land have been addressed through the CNI Deed of Settlement, plus interest on the principle amount of $12.2-million generated from June 25, 2008, to July 1, 2009, plus the opportunity to buy four properties from the Office of Treaty Settlements’ land bank, the opportunity to buy five Crown owned properties as deferred selected properties; and a 50-year right of first refusal to buy one Crown owned property if it become surplus, plus the cost of vesting cultural-redress properties in fee simple, and $2.6-million dollars for special projects.

History: In 1840 Ngāti Manawa had a vast district bounded by the Ika Whenua ranges in the east, the Taupo/Napier highway to the south, the western edge of the Kaingaroa plains and the southern edge of Rerewhakaaitu to the north.

Ngāti Manawa had little contact with the government until the 1860s. In 1865 the New Zealand Wars extended into Ngāti Manawa’s area. Ngāti Manawa were forced to choose sides, and generally decided to support the government. A period of conflict with neighbouring iwi began when Ngāti Manawa were attacked at Te Tāpiri in May 1865. Ngāti Manawa were forced to abandon their district in 1865-1866 and again between 1868 and 1872. They returned to devastation in 1872 as the warring parties had used scorched earth tactics to deny their enemies the use of Ngāti Manawa resources. The government never compensated Ngāti Manawa for this damage, and neither did any Maori protagonist.

In 1874 and 1875, Ngāti Manawa agreed to lease several large blocks of land to the Crown and private parties. But the government would not pay regular rent until the Native Land Court had determined ownership of them. Court hearings caused great disruption and hardship for Ngāti Manawa. The government did not continue the leases. In desperate economic circumstances in the 1880s and 1890s, Ngāti Manawa sold land at Kaingaroa, Heruiwi, Kuhawaea, Pukahunui and Whirinaki.

In 1895 Ngāti Manawa were party to the agreement to establish the Urewera District Native Reserve. The Crown agreed with Māori that the land in the reserve would be under tribal administration, and excluded from the Native Land Court’s processes. Despite this agreement the Crown later enacted legislation restoring the Native Land Court processes and facilitating purchases from individual owners. In 1914 it began purchasing Ngāti Manawa land at Te Whaiti.

By 1927, reserves set aside were inadequate and did not include all the land Ngāti Manawa thought had been reserved.

The government took control of the Rangitaiki, Wheao, Horomanga and Whirinaki rivers that Ngāti Manawa claim are essential for their spiritual wellbeing, and built dams on them so their waters are mixed and polluted.

In 1937, the government took over the administration of some of Ngāti Manawa’s remaining land to develop farms. It was not until Ngāti Manawa resumed control in the 1970s that these farms began to turn a profit and the development debt was paid off.

Ngāti Manawa’s economy became dependent on the forestry industry after 1950. The economic restructuring of the 1980s had a devastating impact on Ngāti Manawa. Many Ngāti Manawa have since left their district in search of work. (11)

Ngāti Whare (Settlement bill introduced.)
Location: a central North Island iwi whose rohe (territory) is based around Te Whaiti, Minginui and the Whirinaki Conservation Park

Tribe size: 3400 registered members.

Financial redress: The total value of the settlement is $15.7-million, comprising redress already provided in the 2008 CNI Settlement, and $1.976-million in cultural redress giftings.

History: Ngāti Whare did not sign the treaty and fought for the Maori king against the government at Orakau in 1864. From 1868, Ngāti Whare backed Te Kooti against government tropps who attacked Te Harema pa in May 1869, killed five or six Ngāti Whare men, raped several women, imprisoned 50 women and children, and destroyed the pa. Between April and May 1870 the remainder of Ngāti Whare surrendered and returned home between 1872 and 1874.

In the late 1870s the Native Land Court began to investigate title to lands in which Ngāti Whare had interests. Ngāti Whare opposed the court, did not participate in hearings and did not contest title investigations, meaning Ngāti Whare interests were not fully recognised. Subsequent land sales left Ngāti Whare eager to retain ownership of their remaining lands.

The Urewera District Native Reserve Act 1896 provided for an alternative to a Native Land Court determination of ownership of customary lands in a 656,000 acre reserve that included the remaining lands of Ngāti Whare. Decisions for the use of land would be made collectively and according to Māori custom. The government subsequently amended the 1896 Act and undermined the system of self-government it provided.

In May 1915 the government bought the Te Whāiti block knowing that purchasing individual shares was illegal under the 1896 Act. Ngāti Whare disagreed with the government’s valuation of the land and timber for the purchase. By 1923, Ngāti Whare had sold all their land.

From the late 1940s, the New Zealand Forest Service, a government department, built and ran Minginui Village, which benefited the social and health conditions of Ngāti Whare. In 1984 the Whirinaki Conservation Park was established and, shortly thereafter, the Crown stopped felling indigenous timber, resulting in high unemployment rates for Minginui Village, a significant decline in services and an increase in poverty. Such problems were compounded by the return of Minginui Village to Ngāti Whare without adequate resources or support in 1989. (12)

Sources:
1. Rangahaua Whanui Research Programme executive summary, http://www.waitangi-tribunal.govt.nz/doclibrary/public/researchnatview/vol1/execsum.pdf,
2. Ngati Manuhiri settlement deed summary http://nz01.terabyte.co.nz/ots/fb.asp?url=livearticle.asp?ArtID=1302655980
3. Ngati Makino settlement deed summary http://nz01.terabyte.co.nz/ots/LiveArticle.asp?ArtID=211767281
4. Maraeroa A and B blocks settlement deed
5. Ngai Tāmanuhiri settlement deed summary http://nz01.terabyte.co.nz/ots/LiveArticle.asp?ArtID=-481637425
6. Ngāti Porou settlement deed summary http://nz01.terabyte.co.nz/ots/LiveArticle.asp?ArtID=-130708183
7. Ngāti Pahauwera settlement deed summary http://nz01.terabyte.co.nz/ots/DocumentLibrary/NgatiPahauweraSummary.pdf
8. Ngāti Apa ki te Rā settlement deed summary Tōhttp://nz01.terabyte.co.nz/ots/DocumentLibrary/NgatiApakiteRaToSummary.pdf
9. Rangitâne o Wairau settlement summary http://nz01.terabyte.co.nz/ots/DocumentLibrary/RangitaneDeedsummary.pdf
10. Ngāti Kuia settlement summary http://nz01.terabyte.co.nz/ots/DocumentLibrary/NgatiKuiaSummary.pdf
11. Ngāti Manawa settlement summary http://nz01.terabyte.co.nz/ots/LiveArticle.asp?ArtID=-285793581
12. Ngāti Whare settlement summary http://nz01.terabyte.co.nz/ots/LiveArticle.asp?ArtID=40847475

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